LONDON — The United States has turned into an energy superpower in recent years thanks largely to fracking. In Britain, which has sought to replicate some of that success, the fracking industry is struggling to survive.
In the latest setback, the government’s commissioner for facilitating fracking resigned over the weekend, complaining about rules so restrictive they have made it all but impossible for the industry to grow. “A perfectly viable and exciting new industry,” the commissioner, Natascha Engel, wrote in her resignation letter, “is in danger of withering on the vine.”
Geological surveys and drilling have suggested that there are large amounts of gas lurking under some parts of the country. But Britain’s fledgling shale industry has faced unrelenting local opposition and regulations that require work be halted when fracking causes tremors. Test drilling and fracking, which involves pumping water, sand and other substances down wells at high pressure to free up the gas, have all but stopped in Britain.
In an interview, Ms. Engel, whose official title was commissioner for shale gas, said she was particularly frustrated by Britain’s rules that force companies to suspend operations when tremors exceed magnitude 0.5, compared with thresholds of about 2.0 and higher for fracking in North America.
The government, bogged down in its messy negotiations over the country’s exit from the European Union, is unlikely to even review these regulations, Ms. Engel said. It is “going to be incredibly challenging for the industry to develop” in Britain, she said.
In that case, “there is really little point in having a government-appointed commissioner for shale gas,” she said.
A few years ago, the prime minister at the time, David Cameron, and his chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne, promoted fracking as a way to replace production from the declining reserves in the North Sea. They were inspired by the success of the United States, where fracking, despite opposition in some areas, has helped turn the country into a major energy exporter.
Ms. Engel, a former legislator from the opposition Labour Party, was appointed in October, during a time of optimism for Britain’s shale industry. Cuadrilla Resources, a shale company, was on the verge of fracking its first well at a site called Preston New Road in a farmer’s field in Lancashire after winning a court battle over local opponents. Other companies were preparing to drill.
Cuadrilla, though, quickly ran into trouble. Sensors deployed around the drilling site detected tremors, forcing the company to suspend fracking several times and to dial back operations.
The company said in February that because of the regulations, it had been able to fully fracture only two of 41 sections of the well and inject only 14 percent of the planned amount of sand. Cuadrilla recently said it was preparing wells for new fracking operations but did not say when it would start.
In a lengthy resignation letter, Ms. Engel, said that the government was in danger of missing the opportunity of helping start an industry that could generate jobs in areas like the northern part of England, where many factories have closed over the years. Fracking, she said, could pay large amounts of taxes and substitute home-produced fuel for imported gas.
Instead, she said, the country is “choosing to listen to a powerful environmental lobby, campaigning against fracking rather than allowing science and evidence to guide our policymaking.”
Some geologists agree with her argument, to an extent. Brian Baptie, chief earthquake seismologist at the British Geological Survey, an independent organization involved in monitoring fracking, said Britain’s rules were significantly tighter than those in the United States and Canada.
Mr. Baptie said he thought there was room for some adjustment of the rules. “I think that the threshold could be increased without a significant increase in the problem of earthquakes that might cause damage or a disturbance to people,” he said.
Political pressure to do more about climate change, though, seems on the increase in Britain and elsewhere in Europe. In London, climate change activists caused significant disruption of transportation and other activities this month, demanding that Britain rapidly reduce greenhouse gas emissions to zero. The protesters were joined by Greta Thunberg, the Swedish schoolgirl whose appeals for environmental action have attracted widespread attention.
The departure of Ms. Engel was applauded by some environmental groups.
“What’s bad news for the frackers is good news for everyone else,” Greenpeace said in a statement.
The outlook looks dim for fracking in Britain. Energy companies are lobbying for a change in the rules but with little sign of success. The government, in fact, rejected Ms. Engel’s concerns; the Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy said that Britain’s rules “strike the right balance in ensuring the industry can develop, while ensuring any operations are carried out safely and responsibly.”
Also, the current government is much weaker than Mr. Cameron’s was when it started promoting fracking. Prime Minister Theresa May’s government still generally favors fracking, but it appears too focused on Brexit to take risks in other areas.
“The last thing on their minds is whether or not we get fracking,” Ms. Engel said, referring to the government.B:
曾道仁白小姐开奖结果【东】【笋】【国】【皇】【宫】，【护】【卫】【看】【着】【晃】【晃】【悠】【悠】【走】【来】【的】【年】【轻】【人】，【心】【中】【疑】【惑】，【就】【算】【真】【的】【有】【资】【格】【进】【出】【皇】【宫】，【也】【没】【见】【过】【哪】【几】【个】【人】【是】【徒】【步】【过】【来】【的】，【不】【乘】【马】【车】，【怎】【么】【说】【也】【得】【骑】【马】【呀】。 “【前】【方】【皇】【宫】，【禁】【止】【出】【入】。” 【水】【鸭】【摸】【了】【摸】【口】【袋】，【从】【里】【头】【掏】【出】【九】【公】【主】【的】【令】【牌】，“【我】【找】【公】【主】【有】【事】。” 【皇】【室】【后】【裔】【每】【人】【只】【有】【三】【个】【代】【表】【身】【份】【的】【令】【牌】，【数】【量】【极】【为】【有】
“【两】【毛】【的】！”【翻】【译】【指】【了】【指】【便】【宜】【的】【那】【一】【管】【鞋】【油】。 【虽】【然】【只】【有】【说】【了】【三】【个】【字】，【但】【字】【正】【腔】【圆】，【纯】【纯】【的】【北】【京】【口】【音】。 【方】【不】【为】【脸】【上】【虽】【然】【不】【动】【声】【色】，【但】【心】【里】【却】【是】【一】【颤】。 【终】【于】【套】【出】【来】【了】…… 【怪】【不】【得】【这】【个】【王】【八】【蛋】【的】【日】【语】【和】【英】【语】【都】【说】【的】【那】【么】【憋】【口】？ 【原】【来】【根】【本】【就】【是】【中】【国】【人】！ 【从】【套】【问】【出】【的】【这】【三】【个】【字】【中】，【隐】【含】【的】【信】【息】【还】【不】【止】【如】【此】
【景】【瑜】【道】：“【我】【这】【边】【倒】【是】【赞】【成】【蕙】【嫔】【的】【意】【思】。”【她】【道】：“【皇】【上】【是】【在】【推】【崇】【节】【俭】，【但】【这】【对】【外】【又】【是】【另】【一】【回】【事】，【蒙】【古】【王】【妃】【来】【京】，**【赠】【礼】【若】【是】【寒】【寒】【酸】【酸】【的】，【难】【免】【叫】【人】【瞧】【着】【笑】【话】，【还】【可】【能】【以】【为】【咱】【们】【大】【清】【国】【力】【不】【似】【从】【前】【了】【呢】。” 【说】【了】【这】【话】，【最】【先】【一】【惊】【的】【事】【蕙】【嫔】，【她】【没】【想】【到】【德】【嫔】【会】【想】【着】【她】【说】【话】。 【不】【过】【即】【便】【是】【向】【着】【她】【说】【话】，【也】【没】【什】【么】【所】
【叶】【沧】【海】【早】【看】【出】【来】【了】，【血】【煞】【掌】【绝】【对】【能】【打】【残】【你】，【那】【正】【好】【了】，【拚】【个】【半】【残】，【让】【手】【掌】【受】【伤】，【尔】【后】【激】【活】【灭】【绝】【掌】【之】【无】【坚】【不】【摧】，【那】【威】【力】【绝】【对】【恐】【怖】。 【果】【然】，【手】【掌】【还】【没】【真】【正】【的】【接】【触】【到】，【血】【煞】【之】【气】【已】【经】【让】【叶】【沧】【海】【的】【手】【掌】【受】【伤】【了】。 【瞬】【间】，【无】【坚】【不】【摧】【给】【激】【活】。 【也】【就】【在】【那】【一】【刹】【那】，【叶】【沧】【海】【的】【掌】【力】【突】【然】【间】【猛】【涨】【了】【十】【倍】。 【太】【快】【了】，【宁】【世】【耀】【连】曾道仁白小姐开奖结果【不】【出】【所】【料】，【是】【乡】【下】【来】【的】。【没】【有】【视】【力】【很】【难】【成】【为】【伟】【大】【的】【工】【具】!【值】【班】【人】【员】【思】【考】。 “【很】【长】【一】【段】【时】【间】?”【辛】【文】【林】【笑】【着】【问】，【声】【音】【温】【柔】，【不】【摆】【架】【子】。【首】【先】，【如】【果】【以】【资】【历】【为】【基】【础】，【他】【几】【乎】【和】【苏】【州】、【杭】【州】【一】【样】，【都】【是】【三】【代】【同】【堂】【的】【孩】【子】。【其】【次】，【辛】【文】【林】【对】【弟】【弟】【有】【一】【种】【同】【情】，【弟】【弟】【比】【他】【小】【得】【多】，【却】【永】【远】【不】【可】【能】【成】【为】【核】【心】。【第】【三】，【他】【欣】【赏】【苏】【州】【和】
【帐】【篷】【打】【开】，【齐】【云】【从】【里】【面】【走】【了】【出】【来】。 【外】【面】，【天】【算】【师】【无】【一】、【过】【阴】【师】【阴】【无】【邪】、【血】【手】【屠】【夫】、【天】【煞】【老】【祖】、【魔】【笑】【天】【王】【纷】【纷】【回】【头】【看】【去】，【汇】【聚】【了】【过】【来】。 “【公】【子】！” “【走】，【去】【山】【脚】【下】，【范】【宗】【主】【那】【边】【已】【经】【回】【了】【消】【息】！” 【齐】【云】【开】【口】【道】。 “【教】【主】，【范】【宗】【主】【答】【应】【让】【我】【们】【进】【去】【了】？” 【三】【缺】【真】【人】【眼】【睛】【一】【亮】，【开】【口】【问】【道】。 “【不】
【陈】【丽】【丽】：“【等】【茶】【室】【开】【起】【来】【了】，【群】【成】【员】【来】【喝】【茶】【全】【免】【费】。【而】【且】【我】【们】【依】【然】【可】【以】【在】【这】【里】【自】【己】【做】【饭】。【我】【会】【专】【门】【弄】【一】【个】【大】【厨】【房】【给】【大】【家】【显】【身】【手】。” “【这】【个】【构】【思】【不】【错】【啊】。” “【有】【创】【意】。” 【这】【倒】【很】【有】【意】【思】。 【刘】【建】【国】：“【先】【不】【说】【赚】【钱】【与】【否】，【光】【是】【后】【一】【个】【想】【法】【我】【就】【要】【支】【持】，【如】【果】【环】【境】【好】【的】【话】，【我】【都】【可】【以】【介】【绍】【不】【少】【人】【来】。【因】【为】【我】【那】
“【小】【姐】，【我】【理】【解】【你】【的】【心】【情】，【但】【是】【火】【情】【一】【直】【在】【扩】【大】，【情】【势】【你】【也】【看】【到】【了】。” “【不】，【他】【肯】【定】【还】【活】【着】！【肯】【定】！【我】【肯】【定】【啊】！” 【夏】【婉】【婉】【冲】【到】【队】【长】【面】【前】，【泪】【流】【满】【面】。 “【阿】【伟】，【带】【这】【位】【小】【姐】【去】【处】【理】【一】【下】【伤】【口】，【小】【杰】，【立】【马】【开】【始】【行】【动】！” 【情】【况】【已】【经】【到】【了】【刻】【不】【容】【缓】【的】【地】【步】，【队】【长】【也】【不】【可】【能】【专】【门】【抽】【出】【时】【间】【和】【夏】【婉】【婉】【费】【口】【舌】【了】。